Tag Archives: Hepatitis

Hepatitis A Outbreak Expands Throughout Southern California

HEAL Blog is the recipient of the ADAP Advocacy Association’s 2015-2016 ADAP Social Media Campaign of the Year Award
By: Marcus J. Hopkins, Blogger

In mid-September 2017, HEAL Blog wrote about the extreme measures taken by San Diego County and city to combat a severe outbreak of Hepatitis A (HAV) among the county’s homeless, indigent, and illicit drug user populations (Hopkins, 2017). At that time, the HAV outbreak consisted of 421 confirmed cases, 292 hospitalizations, and 16 deaths. That initial outbreak, which began in November 2016, has continued to grow with 481 confirmed cases, 337 hospitalizations, and 17 deaths (Sisson, 2017). The outbreak is also spreading.

Both Santa Cruz and Los Angeles Counties have begun seeing outbreaks of HAV related to the initial outbreak in San Diego County, with 68 confirmed cases in Santa Cruz County (Health Services Agency, 2017) and 12 confirmed cases in Los Angeles County, 9 of which required hospitalization (Acute Communicable Disease Control, 2017). These cases do not include all of the reported HAV cases; only those connected to the San Diego outbreak. These cases are primary among the same populations in these counties as they were in San Diego County – homeless, indigent, and illicit drug users.

Hepatitis A Facts

Photo Source: MedChitChat.com

According to Kaiser Health News writer, Stephanie O’Neill, poor access to restrooms and sinks in homeless encampments is largely to blame for these outbreaks (O’Neill, 2017). San Diego County responded to their outbreak by installing 40 portable hand-washing stations throughout the downtown areas hardest hit by the outbreak, leaving public restrooms open overnight, and power-washing heavily soiled sections of downtown sidewalks and streets with a bleach solution in an effort to stop the spread of the virus (O’Neill).

Southern California’s HAV outbreak is being described as “unprecedented” and “the largest outbreak in the U.S. that is not related to a contaminated food product” since the U.S. first introduced a vaccine for hepatitis A in 1995 (O’Neill). This trend is unlikely to be restricted to Southern California. According to the National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty (NLCHP), “Despite a lack of affordable housing and shelter space, many cities have chosen to criminally or civilly punish people living on the street for doing what any human being must do to survive” (NLCHP, n.d.). Additionally, the NLCHP notes that, since 2006, bans on camping city-wide have increased by 69%, bans on sleeping in public have increased by 31%, bans on sitting or lying down in public have increased 52%, bans on loitering, loafing, and vagrancy have increased 88%, and bans on living in vehicles have increased 143% (NLCHP). Furthermore, most cities in the U.S. close public restrooms at dusk, leaving homeless people with nowhere to relieve themselves.

While the intention of these bans is to move cities’ homeless populations out of the line of sight and create “safer” public spaces for homed populations, the real-life effect has resulted in creating conditions ripe for the spread of diseases like HAV. People who lack access to restroom and handwashing facilities are forced to relieve themselves in the open, creating biohazardous waste and fostering the spread of HAV to potentially anyone who comes in contact with their refuse.

It is also likely that, as more cities are hit with HAV outbreaks related to homelessness and illicit drug use, responses will vary between highly effective public health responses like those put in place by San Diego County, and highly ineffective criminalization responses that end up creating worse circumstances than they purport to fix.

References:

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Disclaimer: HEAL Blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community Access National Network (CANN), but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about Hepatitis-related issues and updates. Please note that the content of some of the HEAL Blogs might be graphic due to the nature of the issues being addressed in it.

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2nd Annual HIV/HCV Monitoring Report Released

HEAL Blog is the recipient of the ADAP Advocacy Association’s 2015-2016 ADAP Social Media Campaign of the Year Award
By: Marcus J. Hopkins, Blogger

On September 21st, 2017, the Community Access National Network (CANN) hosted the 2nd Annual National Monitoring Report on HIV/HCV Co-Infection at the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) headquarters in Washington, D.C. Presentations were delivered by yours truly, and Amanda Bowes, Manager on the Health Care Access team for the National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors (NASTAD), both of whom focused on issues of coverage for Hepatitis C (HCV) Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) for the 59 AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) and Medicaid programs, as well as information about the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (V.A.) and Harm Reduction measures.

HIV/HCV Co-Infection Watch

HIV/HCV Co-Infection Watch

Key findings of my presentation indicate that, as of August 2017, 33 state ADAP programs offer coverage for DAAs on their ADAP formularies, an increase of six states from August 2016. Additionally, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have offered expanded coverage for DAA drugs since August 2016. In March 2016, the V.A. began offering treatment with DAAs to every eligible veteran. In terms of Harm Reduction, several states have authorized Syringe Services Programs (SSPs) in an effort to prevent the spread of HIV, Hepatitis B (HBV), and HCV since Congress ended the ban on Federal funding for Syringe Exchange Programs in January 2016.

One other key finding was that, in seven of the states with the ten highest rates of HCV infection, ADAP programs offer either no coverage for HCV drugs or offer coverage only for older, less easily tolerated treatments requiring the use of Pegylated-Interferon (PEG-INF). These states include (in order of highest HCV infection rates): WV, KY, IN, NM, AL, NC, and OH.

Key findings of Mrs. Bowes’ detailed presentation indicate that NASTAD has actively been attempting to increase HCV DAA coverage by ADAP programs in cooperation with the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) while still maintaining fiscal solvency. This consultation, in June 2016, included ADAP and Viral Hepatitis (VH) program staff, Federal partners including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), HRSA, and the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (V.A.), providers specializing in treatment for HIV/HCV co-infection, community partners, and NASTAD staff. The meeting was comprised of a panel of Federal representatives, a presentation on the best practices for ADAP HCV treatment utilization, and a discussion of the various barriers preventing ADAP programs from expanding coverage, clinical management of HIV/HCV co-infection, and policies and procedures for HCV treatment among People Living With HIV (PLWH).

Additionally, NASTAD gathering detailed information related to how ADAP programs covered the cost of HCV DAAs, finding that programs that offered Insurance Continuation (purchasing private insurance coverage for ADAP clients) and paid for the co-pays, rather than paying the full prescription cost, were able to save considerably over paying directly for the medications.

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Disclaimer: HEAL Blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community Access National Network (CANN), but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about Hepatitis-related issues and updates. Please note that the content of some of the HEAL Blogs might be graphic due to the nature of the issues being addressed in it.

 

 

 

 

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Hepatitis A: Extreme Sanitation Measures in San Diego

HEAL Blog is the recipient of the ADAP Advocacy Association’s 2015-2016 ADAP Social Media Campaign of the Year Award
By: Marcus J. Hopkins, Blogger

As a blog designed to talk about issues related to Viral Hepatitis and HIV, we do our best to stay focused on the topic of Hepatitis C (HCV). Recent developments in San Diego, CA, however, have captured our attention and merit coverage and discussion.

Since early 2017, the Public Health Services Division (PHSD) in the San Diego Health and Human Services Agency (HHSA) has been investigating a significant outbreak of the Hepatitis A (HAV) virus. As of September 12, 2017, there have been 421 confirmed cases of Acute HAV which have resulted in 292 hospitalizations (69%) and 16 deaths (3.8%). The majority of these cases have been within San Diego’s homeless and/or illicit drug user populations, although some cases have been neither (HHSA, 2017).

Hepatitis A Outbreak Spreads Beyond Homeless in San Diego

Photo Source: San Diego Informer

HAV is spread primarily by ingesting the virus by way of contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by feces or stool from an infected person, and the symptoms may include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, clay-colored bowel movements, joint pain, and/or jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes). Moreover, HAV is very hardy and is able to live outside the human body for months, making it particularly easy to spread (CDC, 2016).

In response to this outbreak, San Diego has taken the unusually proactive step of implementing extreme health measures in order to combat the spread of HAV including the installation of 40 handwashing stations in areas with high concentrations of homeless people, sanitization efforts in those areas, holding 256 mass vaccination events and 109 “foot teams” of public health nurses who go into the aforementioned areas to offer vaccinations, distributing over 2,400 hygiene kits that include water, non-alcohol hand sanitizer, cleaning wipes, clinic location information, and plastic bags, and implementing street cleaning protocols that require sanitation department workers to power-wash streets and buildings with chlorine and bleach (Bever, 2017).

While these measures may seem extreme, the reality of combating an HAV outbreak once it’s already taken hold means that extraordinary steps must be taken. Despite the availability of HAV vaccinations since 1995, much of the homeless and indigent population either lack access to those healthcare resources, or are too old to have been vaccinated as children. During the mass vaccination events, county health officials have vaccinated 19,000 people, including 7,300 considered to be at-risk of contracting the disease (Warth, 2017). Additionally, the city has agreed to extend public toilet hours to 24/7 in order to allow homeless people access to the restrooms, rather than defecate in the open, whether others may come in contact (Montes, 2017).

While these proactive measures will certainly help to combat the spread, the most important step will be reaching, vaccinating, and educating hard-to-reach/hard-to-treat homeless, indigent, and/or illicit drug user populations in an effort to effect behavioral changes in order to prevent further spread of the disease. This means teaching proper handwashing techniques, proper hygiene, and proper sterilization of equipment used to partake in illicit drug use. San Diego, despite the dire circumstances it currently endures, is taking the right steps to ensure safer streets for their homeless population.

References:

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Disclaimer: HEAL Blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community Access National Network (CANN), but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about Hepatitis-related issues and updates. Please note that the content of some of the HEAL Blogs might be graphic due to the nature of the issues being addressed in it.

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E-mail Undeliverable; HCV Patients Left in the Dark

HEAL Blog is the recipient of the ADAP Advocacy Association’s 2015-2016 ADAP Social Media Campaign of the Year Award
By: Marcus J. Hopkins, Blogger

It was a simple task: comb the Internet for a list of Hepatitis C (HCV) support groups in the U.S. with e-mail addresses as a point of contact, compile them into a spreadsheet, and contact each of them to invite them to access and distribute our free monthly HIV/HCV Co-Infection Watch report. Over a period of two weeks, I managed to gather information on 206 support groups with e-mail contact points, and this past week set about contacting each group with our information. Of the 206 e-mails I sent over two days, 63.1% of them were returned as “Undeliverable.” The rejected e-mails came back for a variety of reasons – closed/frozen accounts; full inboxes; hosts that no longer exist – and for each returned e-mail a problem became clearer: we have a support group problem.

E-mail undeliverable message

In collecting the data, I discovered that eleven states (DE, NE, NH, RI, SD, TN, UT, VT, WV, WI, WY) had no HCV support groups with e-mail addresses as points of contact (that I was able to locate). After compiling the data from the returned e-mails, another eleven states (AK, AR, CO, HI, ID, IL, LA, MN, NJ, OR, VA) had no HCV support groups with functioning e-mail addresses. This amounts to a total of twenty-two states without e-mail contacts for HCV support groups.

In all fairness, that doesn’t mean that there are no HCV support groups in those twenty-two states; just that there are no working e-mail addresses listed (that I could find in two weeks) for those states. Every state has at least one support group with a contact phone number, but because those were outside of the parameters of my assignment, they were not included in the data. Given that e-mail is arguably the most-used form of information gathering after searching websites, it creates a significant barrier to HCV patients gaining access to support services.

The paucity of support groups has largely been eliminated for HIV patients. After nearly forty years, many of the support systems are largely in place for patients living with HIV. This is in no small part a result of the tireless efforts of millions of people working to ensure that patients living with HIV have those support networks in place, should they choose or have the desire to use them. Typing “HIV Support Groups” into a Google search bar results in literally thousands of different options for support services; organizations by the hundreds list the various support groups for patients, family members, spouses, children, friends, neighbors, employers, employees…the list of groups is endless. This is not the case for HCV.

Beyond just support groups, lower-income HIV patients also enjoy (for lack of a better word) access to Ryan White programs that were designed to help patients living with HIV to afford the costs of medications, treatments, healthcare, and other costs of living with the disease. HCV patients, however, must rely upon manufacturer- or privately-funded Patient Assistance Programs (PAPs) that are not operated by either state or Federal agencies. Despite both the high cost of HCV medications and the efficacy of the Ryan White program in reducing the number of HIV-related deaths and increasing access and adherence to HIV treatment, there seems little appetite for either creating a similar program for, or opening up the Ryan White program to include HCV patients.

We must do better. In the modern Age of Technology, there is no good reason that HCV patients should have to muddle through incorrect or outdated contact information to access support groups. There is no reason for HCV patients to go without the types of services provided by doctor offices, hospitals, and clinics to HIV patients in accessing these support services. It is unconscionable for us, as one of the most advanced nations on the planet, to continue to fail the HCV community.

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Disclaimer: HEAL Blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community Access National Network (CANN), but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about Hepatitis-related issues and updates. Please note that the content of some of the HEAL Blogs might be graphic due to the nature of the issues being addressed in it.

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Scott County and Indiana’s Steep Learning Curve on HIV and Hepatitis C

HEAL Blog is the recipient of the ADAP Advocacy Association’s 2015-2016 ADAP Social Media Campaign of the Year Award
By: Marcus J. Hopkins, Blogger

In early 2015, Scott County, Indiana was thrust into the global spotlight for an HIV outbreak among injection drug users abusing opioid prescription drugs and heroin (Hopkins, 2015). In a county that averaged a total of 5 new HIV infections each year, even doubling that number would’ve been a statistical anomaly. By the end of 2016, the county had 216 new HIV infections in the span of just two years, and of those, 95% were co-infected with Hepatitis C (HCV). So rare was the disease that county health department officials had never handled HIV cases, instead sending them all to the regional Sexually Transmitted Diseases Department in Clark County (May, 2016).

The outbreak in Scott County was, and still is, both instructive and reflective of several concurrent health crises faced by most of rural America. In one county, virtually every major health risk met in the middle: a prescription opioid addiction problem, the resultant heroin usage problem, and an access to comprehensive healthcare problem all walked into a bar, and out came one of the worst concentrated HIV epidemics in the U.S. in the past decade. Throw in a paucity of drug addiction, recovery, and Syringe Services Programs (SSPs), and you had the perfect case study for how outbreaks occur.

To be fair to Indiana’s legislature and then-Governor Mike Pence, the state responded intelligently to the crisis by legalizing for the first time SSPs…under certain previsions. Counties had to apply for approval, had to show that they had funding, and had to be located in a high-risk zone. Since Mike Pence’s departure from the state to swampier D.C. pastures, his replacement has actively attempted to ease those restrictions. Earlier this year, the Indiana General Assembly passed a bill allowing local governments to establish syringe or needle exchange programs without having to receive state approval (Rudavsky, 2017). His efforts have not, however, managed to convince everyone.

Map showing states with syringe exchange programs.

Source: HIV/HCV Co-Infection Watch

Madison County, for example, recently voted to remove all funding from their SSP, run by the county’s health department, and prohibited appropriations of funds for paying for both supplies and labor (Fentem, 2017). The ordinance, approved by five of the seven-person council, immediately shuttered the only operating SSP in the county, and was largely driven by stigma-based fears: discarded syringes were going to litter front lawns and public parks; drug addicts were going to wander over from neighboring counties, bringing their drug problems with them; “What about the innocent children?!” These well-worn excuses and arguments against the establishment and funding of SSPs have plagued the proven Harm Reduction measure since its inception. The fears are also unsupported by anything other than anecdotal evidence and hearsay, few assertions of which are backed up by any credible research or quantifiable proof.

Worse, still, is that the council members did nothing on their part to allay these fears. Council member Fred Reese is quoted as saying the following:

Some say if you don’t do the needle exchange, you’re going to have a spread of HIV, you’re going to have a spread of hepatitis C, but my concern is the innocents. I don’t want these needles out (Fentem).

This kind of statement on the part of an elected officials shows cowardice, rather than leadership. Part of the job of county councils is to do what’s in the best interests for everyone, rather than kowtowing to fear-based arguments that bear little resemblance to reality.

Clark County – where Scott County once sent its HIV cases for management – recently renewed their SSP for one year, after which it will be up for renewal in August 2018. About half of the program’s 150 participants have HCV, many of whom were diagnosed through the program (Beilman, 2017). Their hopes for the program include seeing a more balanced rate of return on needle collection. Of the nearly 16,000 needles distributed, the exchange collected almost 8,000 (Beilman).

In Boone County, where no SSP currently exists, Prosecutor Todd Meyer sent the following communique to county leaders:

A needle exchange program does not help in fighting the demand side, in fact, it will do the exact opposite by providing the users/addicts with the tools they need to continue to abuse illicit drugs…(Davis, 2017).

That this opinion was issued by a prosecutor should shock no one. Meyer’s position, however, is reflective of those espoused by [mostly Conservative] voters, legislators, and law enforcement officials, but again, bear little resemblance to reality. Instead, they rely upon fear and stigmatization, along with two terrifyingly short-sighted sentiments: “Not in my back yard!” and “It can’t happen here!” While Meyer contends that Boone County doesn’t have an HIV problem, now, let’s see if it has one in two years.

Back in Scott County, the SSP, run by the Scott County Health Department (SCHD), has another issue: it doesn’t keep track of HCV cases (de la Bastide & Filchak, 2017). For some reason, SCHD officials are only worried about their HIV problem. If that seems counterintuitive, that’s because it is. It was, in fact, a spike in new HCV cases that led to the discovery of the HIV epidemic. Additionally, with a 95% co-infection rate in the 216 HIV cases identified in the initial outbreak, as well as the more aggressive spread of HCV in the U.S. compared to HIV, it makes no sense, whatsoever, for the SCHD to fail to keep track of HCV.

The concurrent HIV and HCV outbreaks in Scott County, Indiana were just the beginning. Already, rural states and counties are beginning to see an uptick in new infections of both diseases as a result of Injection Drug Use (IDU). More concerning is the fact that most of those counties are deeply Conservative, which creates significant challenges for those hoping for proactive healthcare policies, rather than reactive cleanup measures. As for Scott County, there are several families with multiple generations infected with HIV, and very likely with HCV, as a result of prescription opioid and heroin abuse. Unfortunately for them, their county’s health department doesn’t see fit to track their issues.

Download the latest edition of the HIV/HCV Co-Infection Watch.

References:

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Disclaimer: HEAL Blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community Access National Network (CANN), but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about Hepatitis-related issues and updates. Please note that the content of some of the HEAL Blogs might be graphic due to the nature of the issues being addressed in it.

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Cherokee Nation Chooses to Proactively Fight Against Hepatitis C

HEAL Blog is the recipient of the ADAP Advocacy Association’s 2015-2016 ADAP Social Media Campaign of the Year Award
By: Marcus J. Hopkins, Blogger

Native Americans (NAs) in the United States have largely gotten the shaft. Forced from their native lands, herded into reservations, and the victims of innumerable false promises and broken agreements on the part of the U.S. government, NAs have also had the misfortune of being disproportionately impacted by infectious disease. Such is the case with Hepatitis C (HCV). According the most recent Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis report released, this year, by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), NAs have by several integers the highest rate of HCV per 100,000 people out of any race demographic with a rate of 12.95 (CDC, 2017). The Cherokee Nation – the second-largest NA tribe in the U.S. – has decided to actively come out swinging against HCV.

White House honors CN physician for hepatitis C program

Photo Source: Cherokee Phoenix

Roughly 130,000 Cherokee Nation (CN) tribal citizens live in northeastern Oklahoma within the tribe’s boundaries, and within this community, aggressive measures are being taken to combat the disease. Dr. Jorge Mera (seen in the photo being honored by the Obama Administration for his Hepatitis C program), Head of Infectious Diseases at Cherokee Nation in Tahlequah, OK has worked with various agencies and private partners to create a comprehensive approach to dealing with their HCV epidemic (Taylor, 2017):

  • Using newer Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAAs) to treat and achieve Sustained Virologic Response (SVR) in infected tribe members
  • Partnering with Gilead Sciences (makers of three currently available HCV DAAs – Sovaldi, Harvoni, and Epclusa) to receive funding for screening kits and research through the Gilead Foundation
  • Adopting a proactive compulsory screening policy of screening all tribe members aged 20-69 for HCV (rather than just the Baby Boomer Birth Cohort), as well as offering tests to all children of any mother who screens positive for HCV
  • Expanding screening locations to include dental clinics to screen tribe members who may not access other healthcare services
  • Pushing and receiving approval for the establishment and funding of a tribal Syringe Services Program (SSP – Syringe/Needle Exchange) within the tribe’s territory (Hays, 2017)

This type of aggressive approach to combating HCV is, in fact, the type of action that Viral Hepatitis (VH) advocates have been pushing for years, but the unique circumstances under which tribal healthcare operates allows for more freedom than in the greater U.S. “Because Cherokee Nation citizens, under a treaty right with the United States Government have access to medical care, tracking them, and screening them is slightly easier than might be so for other US populations,” explains Dr. Mera (Taylor). Additionally, since their focus is on a smaller, specific population, the CN is able to focus its care on a smaller pool of individuals, rather than attempting to address the healthcare needs of millions of citizens.

That said, HCV transmission does not occur within a vacuum – tribe members do come in contact with people who fall outside of the tribe’s jurisdiction, meaning that, even if the CN’s efforts to screen, track, and cure all members of the tribe within its boundaries are 100% successful, they are still susceptible to new infections by way of contact with those outside of their community. This means that the types of progressive Harm Reduction, screening, and treatment measures being undertaken by CN need to be replicated in the state of Oklahoma, as well as the surrounding states (and eventually, the entire U.S.) in order for their efforts to not be undermined by failures to provide similar services on the parts of state and Federal governments.

These tactics also serve as a roadmap for dealing with HCV in some of the states hardest hit by the disease, particularly in smaller Appalachian states like West Virginia and Kentucky, where geography and smaller, more remote populations make reaching, screening, tracking, and treating not only HCV, but every health condition more difficult.

The tribe will present its progress at the World Indigenous People’s Conference on Viral Hepatitis in Anchorage, AK on August 08-09, 2017. For more information on that conference, please click on the following link: WORLD INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ CONFERENCE ON VIRAL HEPATITIS

References:

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Disclaimer: HEAL Blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community Access National Network (CANN), but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about Hepatitis-related issues and updates. Please note that the content of some of the HEAL Blogs might be graphic due to the nature of the issues being addressed in it.

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Michigan Hepatitis C Surge Related to Prescription Opioid and Heroin Abuse

HEAL Blog is the recipient of the ADAP Advocacy Association’s 2015-2016 ADAP Social Media Campaign of the Year Award

By: Marcus J. Hopkins, Blogger

The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) released its 2016 Hepatitis B and C Annual Surveillance Report, indicating drastic increasing in new Chronic Hepatitis C (HCV) cases in the state, particularly among residents aged 18-29. Two factors posed significant roles in the transmission of these cases – Injection Drug Use (IDU) and Incarceration.

HEAL Blog has consistently reported on HCV transmission as a result of IDU and within incarceration settings, and report is further evidence of those positions. There were 11,883 new Chronic HCV cases reported in 2016 for a rate of 119.78 out of every 100,000 people. 69% of those cases were followed up on and epidemiological profiles were made; of those IDU was a risk factor in 64% of cases, while incarceration was a risk factor in 63% (MDHHS, 2017).

More striking, however, was the vast increase in Chronic HCV in people aged 18-29 between 2005-2016 – an alarming 473%, of which 84.2% were reportedly related to IDU in that same age group. This trend is replicated all over the country, especially in areas where prescription opioid and heroin abuse levels are more prevalent.

Logo for the Michigan Department of Health & Human Services

Photo Source: MDHHS

MDHHS reported that viral hepatitis-related hospitalizations, liver cancer incidence, liver transplants, and viral hepatitis deaths have all increased over the last decade, largely driven by the impact of Chronic HCV infections (Mack, 2017). With so many of these cases ostensibly linked to opioid and heroin abuse, a robust response to the addiction epidemics is needed, as well as compulsory “Opt-Out” screening at clinics, emergency rooms, hospitals, and correctional settings.

The Lansing City Council recently voted to allow Syringe Services Programs (Syringe/Needle Exchanges), a proactive Harm Reduction measure that studies indicate reduces the rate of transmission amongst both People Who Inject Drugs (PWIDs), as well as the general population (Cook, 2017). Selling these programs to citizens who are unfamiliar with the programs, staunchly opposed to drug use, or believe that the exchanges encourage drug use remains a difficult proposition. Proponents argue that PWIDs are going to use drugs, regardless of whether or not there are exchanges; that being the case, it makes logical sense to prevent the spread of disease.

Michigan’s increase in Viral Hepatitis (VH) follows a national trend that will be replicated – possibly with farther reaching, deadlier impact – in other states.

References

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Disclaimer: HEAL Blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community Access National Network (CANN), but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about Hepatitis-related issues and updates. Please note that the content of some of the HEAL Blogs might be graphic due to the nature of the issues being addressed in it.

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