Tag Archives: Kentucky

Viral Hepatitis Funding Lowest in States Most at Risk

HEAL Blog is the recipient of the ADAP Advocacy Association’s 2015-2016 ADAP Social Media Campaign of the Year Award
By: Marcus J. Hopkins, Blogger

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently released the data related to Viral Hepatitis (VH) surveillance in the U.S. for 2015, and the picture is…grim. While many states saw relatively stable rates of new Acute Hepatitis C (HCV) infections, two states – AL and PA – experienced 100% increases from 2014 (CDC, 2017). CDC funding for states’ respective Viral Hepatitis programs, however, tends to fall short in states where rates of infection are high relative to the population (The AIDS Institute, 2017).

Infection rates are generally calculated by taking the number of total infections, dividing that by a state’s total population, and multiplying that result by 100,000 to calculate how many people, on average, will be infected for every 100,000 residents. For example:

The state of West Virginia reported 63 new cases in 2015; the state has a population of 1,844,000, so 63/1,844,000 = 0.00003416 x 100,000 = 3.416 rate of infection.

West Virginia, despite being the 14th least populous state (including the District of Columbia), has the second highest rate of new HCV infections in the U.S., second only to Massachusetts, which has a rate of 3.7. The following chart lists the top ten states in order of highest infection rate, their respective populations, and the amount of funding in those states for VH:

Chart showing 10 states with highest viral hepatitis infections also having lowest state budgets to combat the disease, including MA, WV, KY, TN, ME, IN, NM, MT, NJ, NC

The above chart seems to be indicative of two things irrespective of a state’s population: (1.) certain states make VH funding a priority, while others do not; (2.) states are simply not receiving enough funding from the Federal government and the CDC to bring their VH programs up to funding levels adequate enough to effectively combat VH.

Each of these states has a number of factors contributing to their respective rates of infection: (1.) Aging populations (Baby Boomers born between 1945-1965); (2.) High rate of Injection Drug Use related to opioid drugs, heroin, or stimulants; (3.) Sharp increase in the number of tests administered, resulting in higher rates of positive results.

What is clear is that funding for VH is woefully inadequate if the U.S. intends to eradicate HCV from the U.S. by 2030.

References:

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Disclaimer: HEAL Blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community Access National Network (CANN), but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about Hepatitis-related issues and updates. Please note that the content of some of the HEAL Blogs might be graphic due to the nature of the issues being addressed in it.

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Milk, Bread, Ground Beef, and Overdose Medication

By: Marcus J. Hopkins, Blogger

The HEAL Blog has been following the issue of opioid addiction very closely, largely because Injection Drug Users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of new Hepatitis C (HCV) infections in the U.S., particularly in rural parts of the country. The Appalachian Mountain region serves as a prime example of how heroin and opioid addiction can lead to a rash of both HIV and HCV outbreaks; it also serves as excellent proving grounds for how Harm Reduction methods can help to prevent mass outbreaks, as well as save lives.

Harm Reductions measures are those that focus on preventive measures that have been shown to lessen the risk to individuals through various legal means. As they relate to opioid addiction, one of the most important measures is increased access to Naloxone, a medication that is used to block the effects of opioid drugs, such as slowed breathing and loss of consciousness. Naloxone – sold under the brand name, Narcan – is a nasal spray that is used to counteract the effects of an opioid overdose. It is currently listed on the World Health Organization’s “List of Essential Medicines,” the most important medications needed in a basic health system, and increasing ease of access without a prescription is something for which advocates have long fought.

Last week, in the city of Huntington, WV, 26 people overdosed on opioid drugs in a period of only four hours from a particularly potent batch of heroin. Of those 26 overdose cases, none of the patients died, as first responders and hospitals were quick to react, delivering a total of 12 doses of Naloxone, including the two used by Huntington police. One patient had to be revived using three doses (Struck, 2016). The remaining patients were revived using bag valve masks, a handheld device used to provide ventilation to patients who aren’t breathing. The users who overdosed ranged in age from 20 to 59, demonstrating that the opioid epidemic affects people of virtually every age range. In Cabell County, where Huntington is located, there were 440 overdoses by June of this year, 26 of which resulted in death; the state of West Virginia, itself, ranks highest in the number of overdose deaths in the U.S.

In Kentucky, the next state over and less than fifteen miles from Huntington, Kroger grocery store locations with pharmacies on site began offering Naloxone over the counter without a prescription at 96 locations, including 80 pharmacies in the Louisville Division (Warren, 2016). Kentucky currently ranks in the top five states for overdose deaths, which makes it an excellent test market for the efficacy of offering Naloxone without a prescription. That said, the Kroger locations in Ashland, KY – the city nearest Huntington, WV – does not yet offer the drug over the counter.

Naloxone rescue kit

Photo Source: Yourblogondrugs.com

When we discuss expanding Naloxone access, there are a number of ways that access can be broadened – (1.) Naloxone can be carried by first responders; (2.) Naloxone can be carried also by state employees (such as school officials); (3.) Naloxone can be sold without a prescription to anyone. WV does not currently allow the sale of Naloxone without a prescription, although WV HB 4035 seeks to do just that. Access to first responders, including police and other emergency personnel, was expanded beyond just Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) in May of this year, but it is unclear, yet, whether or not HB 4035 will be ratified and made into law by the end of this year. In an election year, particularly in the latter half, little of substance seems to get done.

What is important, however, is that we continue to fight to expand access to this lifesaving drug. Politics and personal peccadillos aside, saving someone’s life should never fall prey to moralizing of whether or not opioid abuse is wrong, nor should saving a life be predicated upon whether or not one agrees with the lifestyle choices of the victim. When lives are at risk, every reasonable action should be taken to ensure that those lives are saved.

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Disclaimer: HEAL Blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community Access National Network (CANN), but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about Hepatitis-related issues and updates. Please note that the content of some of the HEAL Blogs might be graphic due to the nature of the issues being addressed in it.

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220 is the Magic Number

By: Marcus J. Hopkins, Blogger

Earlier this month, The Wall Street Journal reported that the CDC has listen 220 counties in the United States as being at high risk of an HIV and/or Hepatitis C outbreak, largely related to opioid Injection Drug Use/Users (IDUs). Out of over 3,100 counties in the U.S., these 220 counties – including Scott Co., Indiana, home of one of the highest profile mass HIV/HCV outbreaks in recent U.S. history – share specific factors that seem to be related to a high rate of new HIV/HCV infections, such as high unemployment rates, overdose deaths, and sales of prescription opioid painkillers.

For those of us who have been covering opioid prescription and heroin abuse issues, none of this is news. These factors have long been contributing factors to opioid and heroin abuse, but because of the remote nature of many of these counties, little attention was ever paid and little due diligence was ever done in the way of addressing their needs. These areas, while rich in natural beauty and great for those who prefer life away from the so-called “Big Cities,” are also home to some of the highest levels of endemic poverty in the U.S. Economic development in these areas has been hampered by a number of issues – lack of qualified workers, resistance or reluctance to modernization (many of these counties still lack adequate high-speed Internet access), the remote nature of the areas in relation to centers of commerce, and a regional distaste for “outsiders” – all of which leaves residents with few, if any, good options for work. Residents are lucky to find full-time employment at all, and many are forced to subsist off of part-time and contract work, the opportunities for which are few and far between.

With endemic unemployment and poverty rates high, the sad fact is that sheer boredom comes into play as a factor for drug abuse. Many of my high school friends who ended up addicted to prescription opioid drugs started not because they suffered from high levels or long-lasting chronic pain, but because they were bored, and there was nothing else to do, except for snort some pills; once those pills were made “abuse proof,” they learned how to cook them down, filter out the plastic coating with a piece of mesh, and inject them directly into their bloodstreams. Once needles come into play, what was once a way to survive the boredom turns into a full-blown addiction, anecdotally harder to kick than any other.

Map of the United States showing counties at risk for HIV and HCV outbreaks

Photo Source: Wall Street Journal

Of the 220 suspect counties shown on the WSJ’s map, the vast majority cover Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, three states as well known for their contribution to the entertainment industry’s portrayal of poverty as they are for hillbilly jokes. The jovial Appalachians from the Beverly Hillbillies still serve as a point of reference for outsiders, but that well-meaning-yet-easily-conned stereotype bears little resemblance to real life Appalachians, where striking oil would be the best thing to ever happen, but residents are far likelier to tap a vein for injection, rather than natural resources.

Compounding the problem is the reality that the remote nature of these counties makes increasing access to adequate healthcare and treatment services both difficult and costly. While telemedicine is quickly becoming a valuable resource, those resources are already stretched to capacity, with few applicants lining up for jobs and limited financial means to pay for additional staff. All three of the aforementioned states are currently facing massively budget shortfalls for a variety reasons, one of which includes the flight of higher-income citizens to states with better job prospects, leaving them to rely upon an increasingly impoverished tax base, which bodes poorly for advocates of additional funding.

Confronting this high-risk label is going to be a unique challenge for the counties in question, and there are no easy answers or quick fixes. This is going to be a multi-year, if not multi-decade, fight to expand educational, employment, and economic opportunities to these areas that will help address generations of poverty and joblessness. Those efforts must be accompanied by concurrent healthcare efforts, without which I fear that we will continue to see high levels of opioid abuse and equally high levels of accompanying HIV and HCV infections.
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Disclaimer: HEAL Blogs do not necessarily reflect the views of the Community Access National Network (CANN), but rather they provide a neutral platform whereby the author serves to promote open, honest discussion about Hepatitis-related issues and updates. Please note that the content of some of the HEAL Blogs might be graphic due to the nature of the issues being addressed in it.

 

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